КОРОНАВІРУСНА ХВОРОБА(COVID-19). ВИКЛИКИ ТА ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ СПЕЦИФІЧНОЇ ДІАГНОСТИКИ

Автор(и)

  • К. М. Гуменюк ДУ «Український науково-дослідний протичумний інститут імені І. І. Мечнікова МОЗ України»
  • Д. О. Дубина ДУ «Український науково-дослідний протичумний інститут імені І. І. Мечнікова МОЗ України»
  • О. О. Юрченко ДУ «Український науково-дослідний протичумний інститут імені І. І. Мечнікова МОЗ України»

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18524/2307-4663.2021.1(51).226901

Ключові слова:

вірус SARS-CoV-2, специфічна діагностика, полімеразна ланцюгова реакція зі зворотною транскрипцією в реальному часі (рЗТ-ПЛР), імуноферментний аналіз (ІФА), швидкі діагностичні тести

Анотація

Пандемія коронавірусної хвороби (COVID-19), яка стартувала наприкінці 2019 року в Китаї, стала непередбаченим викликом для системи охорони здоров’я абсолютно усіх країн світу. Серед проблем, які потребували негайного вирішення, стало налагодження масової специфічної діагностики емерджентної інфекції, спричиненої коронавірусом SARS-CoV-2. У даному огляді представлені технології, які застосовуються для специфічної діагностики COVID-19. Обговорено переваги та обмеження найбільш поширених методологій, спрямованих на виявлення збудника або специфічних до нього антитіл. Виявлення фрагментів геному вірусу за допомогою полімеразної ланцюгової реакції зі зворотною транскрипцією в реальному часі (рЗТ-ПЛР) дозволило досягти високої точності діагностики. З самого початку пандемії та дотепер цей метод вважається «золотим» стандартом, незважаючи на обмеження, пов’язані з його високою вартістю, трудомісткістю та необхідністю проведення досліджень в спеціалізованих лабораторіях. Більш дешеві імунологічні методи мають недостатню діагностичну ефективність і можуть використовуватися лише як додаткові до молекулярного тестування. В огляді також представлені перспективні методи специфічної діагностики COVID-19, які засновані на молекулярно-генетичних технологіях, характеризуються простотою та швидкістю виконання, не потребують дорогого обладнання і можуть виконуватись в пунктах надання медичної допомоги.

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