МАТРИКС БІОПЛІВКИ – ХІМІЧНИЙ СКЛАД, СТРУКТУРА, ВЛАСТИВОСТІ

М. Б. Галкін, В. О. Іваниця, Б. М. Галкін, Т. О. Філіпова

Анотація


Біоплівки є спільнотами мікробних клітин, які беруть участь в різних процесах, в тому числі в біоремедіаціі стічних вод, стимулюванні зростання рослин, хронічних інфекціях і промислових обростаннях. Клітини-резиденти біоплівки занурені в гідратований екзополімерний матрикс, компоненти якого синтезуються самими мікроорганізмами. Матрикс зазвичай містить поліцукриди, білки, нуклеїнові кислоти і ліпіди; він забезпечує механічну стабільність біоплівок, опосередковує їх адгезію до поверхонь і утворює компактну тривимірну полімерну структуру, яка забезпечує контакт між клітинами і їх транзиторне утримання в біоплівці. Матрикс виконує різні функції для спільноти: від забезпечення структурної жорсткості і захисту від зовнішнього середовища до контролю генної регуляції і адсорбції поживних речовин. Глибоке знання властивостей матриксу має виключно важливе значення для розробки нових стратегій контролю біоплівкових інфекцій, для промислового і біотехнологічного використання біоплівок. Це стосується структури окремих компонентів, характеру взаємодії між молекулами і тривимірної просторової організації.

Дана робота присвячена огляду сучасних уявлень щодо складу структури та властивостей матриксу біоплівки як мікросередовища для існування клітин мікроорганізмів.


Ключові слова


біоплівка; матрикс; поліцукриди; білки; еДНК; ліпіди; біосурфактанти

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Посилання


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Пристатейна бібліографія ГОСТ


Adair C. G., Gorman S. P., Feron B. M. Implications of endotracheal tube biofilm for ventilator-associated pneumonia // Intens. Care Med. – 1999. – V. 25. – P. 1072–1076.

Böckelmann U., Janke A., Kuhn R., Neu T.R., Wecke J., Lawrence J.R., Szewzyk U. Bacterial extracellular DNA forming a defined network-like structure // FEMS Microbiol. Lett. – 2006. – V. 262. – P. 31–38.

Boles B.R., Thoendel M., Singh P.K. Self-generated diversity produces “insurance effects” in biofilms communities // Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA. – 2004. – V. 101. – P. 16630–16635.

Branda S.S., Chu F., Kearns D.B., Losick R., Kolter R. A major protein component of the Bacillus subtilis biofilm matrix // Mol. Microbiol. – 2006. – V. 59. – P. 1229–1238.

Byrd M. S. Sadovskaya I., Vinogradov E., Lu H. Genetic and biochemical analyses of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Psl exopolysaccharide reveal overlapping roles for polysaccharide synthesis enzymes in Psl and LPS production // Mol. Microbiol. – 2009. – V. 73. – P. 622–638.

Conrad A. Suutari M. K., Keinänen M. M., Cadoret A., Faure P., MansuyHuault L., Block J. C. Fatty acid lipid fractions in extracellular polymeric substances of activated sludge flocs // Lipids. – 2003. – V. 38. – P. 1093–1105.

Danese P. N., Pratt L. A., Kolter R. Exopolysaccharide production is required for development of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilm architecture // J. Bacteriol. – 2000. – V. 182. – P. 3593–3596.

Davey M. E., O’Toole G.A. Microbial Biofilms: from Ecology to Molecular Genetics // Microb. mol. boil. rev. – 2000. – V. 64. – № 4. – P. 847–867.

Davey M. E. Cajazza N. C., O´Toole, G. A. Rhamnolipid surfactant production affects biofilm architecture in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. // J. Bacteriol. – 2003. – V. 185. – P. 1027–1036.

Decho A. W., Visscher P. T., Reid R. P. Production and cycling of natural microbial exopolymers (EPS) within a marine stromatolite // Paleogeogr. Paleoclimatol. Paleoecol. – 2005. – V. 219. – P. 71–86.

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Flemming H. C., Neu T. R., Wozniak D. The EPS matrix: the house of biofilm cells // J. Bacteriol. – 2007. – V.189 – P. 7945–7947.

Frølund B., Palmgren R., Keiding K., Nielsen, P. H. Extraction of extracellular polymers from activated sludge using a cation exchange resin // Water Res. – 1996. – V. 30. – P. 1749–1758.

Gerbersdorf S. U., Jancke T., Westrich B., Paterson, D. M. Microbial stabilization of riverine sediments by extracellular polymeric substances // Geobiology. – 2008. – V. 6. – P. 57–69.

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Hans-Curt Flemming, Jost Wingender. The biofilm matrix // Nat. rev. microbial. – 2010. – V. 8. – P. 623–633.

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Hohne D. N., Younger G. J., Solomon M. J. Flexible multifluidic device for mechanical property characterization of soft viscoelastic solids such as bacterial biofilms // Langmuir. – 2009. – V. 25. – P. 7743–7751.

Izano E. A., Amarante M. A., Kher W. B., Kaplan J. B. Differential roles of poly-N-acetylglucosamine surface polysaccharide and extracellular DNA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms // Appl. Environ. Microbiol. – 2008. – V. 74. – P. 470–476.

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Johansson E. M., Crusz E., Kolomiets L., Buts, R. U., Kadam, K. M., Bartels S. P. Diggle, et al. Inhibition and dispersion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by glycopeptide dendrimers targeting the fucose-specific lectin LecB // Chem. Biol. – 2008. – V. 15. – P. 1249–1257.

Klausen M. M., Thomsen T. R., Nielsen J. L., Mikkelsen L. H. Nielsen P. H. Variations in microcolony strength of probe-defined bacteria in activated sludge flocs // FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. – 2004. – V. 50. – P. 123–132.

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Lasa I., Penadés J. R. Bap: a family of surface proteins involved in biofilm formation // Res. Microbiol. – 2006. – V. 157. – P. 99–107.

Laue H., Schenk A., Li H., Lambertsen L., Neu T. R., Molin S., Ullrich M. S. Contribution of alginate and levan production to biofilm formation by Pseudomonas syringae // Microbiology. – 2006. – V. 152. – P. 2909–2918.

Lynch D. J., Fountain T. L., Mazurkiewicz, Banas J. A. Glucan-binding proteins are essential for shaping Streptococcus mutans biofilm architecture // FEMS Microbiol. Lett. – 2007. – V. 268. – P. 158–165.

Ma L., Conover M., Lu H., Parsek M.R., Bayles K., Wozniak D.J. Assembly and development of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix // PLoS Pathog. – 2009. – V. 5. – P. 1–11

Matsuyama T., Nakagawa Y. Surface-active exolipids: analysis of absolute chemical structures and biological functions // J. Microbiol. Methods. – 1996. – V. 25. – P. 165–175.

Mayer C., Moritz R., Kirschner C., Borchard W., Maibaum R., Wingender J., Flemming H. C. The role of intermolecular interactions studies on model systems for bacterial biofilms //Int. J. Biol. Macromol. – 1999. – V. 26. – P. 3–16.

Molin S., Tolker-Nielsen T. Gene transfer occurs with enhanced efficiency in biofilms and induces enhanced stabilisation of the biofilm structure // Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. – 2003. – V. 14. – P. 255–261.

Mora P., Rosconi F., Franco Fraguas L., Castro-Sowinski S. Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 produces an outer-membrane lectin that specifically binds to surface-exposed extracellular polysaccharide produced by the bacterium // Arch. Microbiol. – 2008. – V. 189. – P. 519–524.

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Neu T. R., Dengler T., Jann B., Poralla K. Structural studies of an emulsionstabilizing exopolysaccharide produced by an adhesive, hydrophobic Rhodococcus strain // J. Gen. Microbiol. – 1992. – V. 138. – P. 2531–2537.

O’Toole G. A. To Build a Biofilm // Journal of Bacteriology. – 2003. – V. 185. – № 9. – P. 2687–2689.

Or D., Phutane S., Dechesne A. Extracellular polymeric substances affecting pore-scale hydrologic conditions for bacterial activity in unsaturated soils // Vadose Zone J. – 2007. – V. 6. – P. 298–305.

Otzen D., Nielsen P. H. We find them here, we find them there: functional bacterial amyloid // Cell. Mol. Life Sci. – 2007. – V. 65. – P. 910–927.

Pamp S. J., Gjermansen, M., Tolker-Nielsen T. In The Biofilm Mode of LifeMechanisms and Adaptations / eds Kjelleberg, S., Givskov M. – Horizon Bioscience, Norfolk, UK. – 2007. – P. 37–69

Potts M. Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes // Microbiol. Rev. – 1994. – V. 58. – P. 755–805.

Roberson E. B., Firestone M. K. Relationship between desiccation and exopolysaccharide production in a soil Pseudomonas sp. // Appl. Environ. Microbiol. – 1992. – V. 58. – P. 1284–1291.

Römling U. The multicellular morphotypes of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli produce cellulose as the second component of the extracellular matrix // Mol. Microbiol. – 2001. – V. 39. – P. 1452–1463.

Rupp M. E., Ulphani J. S., Fey P. D., Mack D. Characterization of the importance of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutination of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the pathogenesis of biomaterial-based infection in a mouse foreign body infection model // Infect. Immun. – 1999. – V. 67. – P. 2627–2632.

Rupp C. J., Fux C. A., Stoodley P. Viscoelasticity of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in response to fluid shear allows resistance to detachment and facilitates rolling migration // Appl. Environ. Microbiol. – 2005. – V. 71. – P. 2175–2178.

Russell R. R. B. Bacterial Polysaccharides in Dental Plaque. In Bacterial Polysaccharides. Current Innovations and Future Trends / Ed. Ullrich, M. Caister Academic, Norfolk, UK. – 2009. – P. 143–156.

Ryder C., Byrd M., Wozniak D. J. Role of exopolysaccharides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development // Curr. Opin. Microbiol. – 2007. – V. 10 – P. 644–648.

Sand W., Gehrke T. Extracellular polymeric substances mediate bioleaching/biocorrosion via interfacial processes involving iron(III) ions and acidophilic bacteria // Res. Microbiol. – 2006. – V. 157. – P. 49–56.

van Schaik E. J., Giltner C. L., Audette G. F., Keizer D. W., Bautista D. L., Slupsky C. M., Sykes B. D., Irvin R. T. DNA binding: a novel function of Pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pili // J. Bacteriol. – 2005. – V. 187. – P. 1455–1464.

Schmitt J., Nivens D., White D. C., Flemming, H. C. Changes of biofilm properties in response to sorbed substances — an FTIR-ATR-study // Water Sci. Technol. – 1995. – V. 32. – P. 149–155.

Shaw T., Winston M., Rupp C. J., Klapper I., Stoodley P. Commonality of elastic relaxation times in biofilms // Phys. Rev. Let. – 2004. – V. 93. – P. 98–102.

Skillman L., Sutherland I. W., Jonse, M. V. The role of exopolysaccharides in dual species biofilm development // J. Appl. Microbiol. – 1999. – V. 85. – P. 13–18.

Steinberger R. E., Holden P. A. Extracellular DNA in single- and multiplespecies unsaturated biofilms // Appl. Environ. Microbiol. – 2005. – V. 71. – P. 5404–5410.

Stoodley P., Cargo R., Rupp C. J., Wilson S., Klapper I. Biofilm material properties as related to shear-induced deformation and detachment phenomena // J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. – 2003. – V. 29. – P. 361–367.

Sutherland I. W. The biofilm matrix – an immobilized but dynamic microbial environment // Trends Microbiol. – 2001. – V. 9. – P. 222–227.

Sutherland I. W. in Comprehensive Glycoscience / ed. Kamerling, J. P. – Elsevier, Doordrecht. –2007. – V. 2. – P. 521–558.

Tamaru Y., Takami Y., Yoshida T., Sakamoto T. Crucial role of extracellular polysaccharides in desiccation and freezing tolerance in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune // Appl. Environ. Microbiol. – 2005. – V. 71. – P. 7327–7333.

Tielker D., Hacker S., Loris R., Strathmann M., Wingender J., Wilhelm S., Rosenau F., Jaeger K. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin LecB is located in the outer membrane and is involved in biofilm formation // Microbiology. – 2005. – V. 151. – P. 1313–1323.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18524/2307-4663.2016.4(36).86349

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